The prevalence of RV infections in animals has been well documented from different parts of India [5,13,14]

The prevalence of RV infections in animals has been well documented from different parts of India [5,13,14]. RVs are classified into G-type and P-type based on the VP7 and VP4 structural genes, respectively [8]. RV is definitely highly infectious and may be transmitted via the fecal-oral route and in respiratory droplets [9,10]. Infected viruses preferentially multiply in the intestinal epithelia and cause extensive damage to the enterocytes. This results in malabsorption leading severe to acute diarrhea [11]. Arunachal Pradesh, a North Eastern state of India, is definitely a tribal state where there is no any taboo attached to the farming of pigs. Almost all rural household has minimum of one to two or more pigs in their yard [12]. Pig meat (pork) is very popular among all the tribes of the state. Despite having enormous potential of pig farming in Arunachal Pradesh, due to lack of appropriate technical knowledge and guidance most VR23 of the pig farmers suffers weighty loss due to various kinds of diseases, of which neonatal diarrhea caused by RV is one of the most important diseases in piglets. The prevalence of RV infections in animals has been well recorded from different parts of India [5,13,14]. However, no data on distribution of RV among pig human population of Arunachal are available as no systematic study has been carried VR23 out so far. Studies carried out in Assam, a neighboring state of Arunachal Pradesh, have clearly indicated the presence of RV among pig human population of the state [4,15]. In Assam, the overall prevalence of RV was found to be 41.5% where maximum numbers of positive cases were found in piglets (46.3%) followed by human being (40%) and cattle (37.1%) [16]. To protect and reduce the prevalence of the disease, epidemiological studies in Arunachal Pradesh are of utmost importance besides developing systems for the disease isolation, recognition and above all molecular characterization of the disease for long term vaccine strategy. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of RV illness in pig human population of Arunachal Pradesh, having a look at to have some baseline data to formulate control actions. Materials and Methods Honest authorization Honest authorization for the study was from IAEC, Assam Agricultural University or college (AAU), Khanapara campus vide authorization No.770/ac/CPCSEA/FVSc/AAU/IAEC/14-15/263 dtd. 20.6.2014. Farms and animals The study was carried out in six districts of Arunachal Pradesh, em viz /em ., lesser Subansiri, top Subansiri, East Siang, Western Siang, Papumpare, and Lohitwhere pig farming is commonly utilized and was accessible during the study period. The study area with the districts is definitely depicted in Number-1. The pig human population in this area were both structured and unorganized farming. In structured farms, animals were maintained mostly on Rabbit Polyclonal to Osteopontin concrete floors while wooded floors are used in unorganized farms. Further, in structured farms, animals were reared following modern scientific managemental methods such as regular deworming, appropriate vaccination, etc. In unorganized farms, such methods were not adopted. The piglets (2-4 weeks age) and related sows (mothers) were targeted for studying the RV prevalence. The serum samples were collected through the active participation of farmers and veterinarians working in the different location of Arunachal Pradesh both from structured and unorganized pig farms. Open in a separate windowpane Number-1 Map of Arunachal Pradesh showing the study areas. [Resource: DIVA-GIS VR23 programme, Web address:]. Serum sample Blood samples were collected from piglets having suspected RV-induced diarrheaand connected sows. The samples were from the ear vein or cranial vena cava, and serum was separated by centrifugation (SIGMA, Model 3K30, UK). The samples were labeled properly, transported in ice-box to the laboratory and stored at ?20C for further use. A total of 394 numbers of serum samples were collected from your pig human population of six districts of Arunachal Pradesh. Detection of anti-RV antibody in serum Anti-RV antibodies in collected serum samples were recognized using an indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) as per method explained byHohdatsu em et al /em . [17]. Viral antigen Standard Group A RV managed in the Division of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Technology, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati was used as covering antigen in the i-ELISA. i-ELISA Antibodies to RV in the serum sample were recognized and titrated by i-ELISA as per the method of Hohdatsu em et al /em . [18]. Revalidation of the test was carried VR23 out using standard RV antigen and pig anti-RV antibody. The standard RV.